# Probability and Statistics - Syllabus

Embark on a profound academic exploration as you delve into the Probability and Statistics course () within the distinguished Tribhuvan university's CSIT department. Aligned with the 2065 Syllabus, this course (STA-103) seamlessly merges theoretical frameworks with practical sessions, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the subject. Rigorous assessment based on a 60+20+20 marks system, coupled with a challenging passing threshold of , propels students to strive for excellence, fostering a deeper grasp of the course content.

This 3 credit-hour journey unfolds as a holistic learning experience, bridging theory and application. Beyond theoretical comprehension, students actively engage in practical sessions, acquiring valuable skills for real-world scenarios. Immerse yourself in this well-structured course, where each element, from the course description to interactive sessions, is meticulously crafted to shape a well-rounded and insightful academic experience.

**Course Synopsis:**Concept of descriptive statistics, probability, probability distributions, inferential statistics and their applications.

**Goal:**This course enhances the ability of students in computing and understanding summary statistics; understanding the concept of probability and probability distributions with their applications in statistics. Finally, students will develop their ability of using inferential statistics in decision-making processes.

#### Units

Scopes and limitations of statistics in empirical research; Role of probability theory in statistics; Role of computer technology in statistics

Descriptive Statistics

Measures of location: mean, median, mode, partition values and their properties; Measures of dispersion: absolute and relative measure of variation; range, quartile deviation, standard deviation; Other measures: Coefficient of variation; Measures of skewness and kurtosis.

Probability

Introduction of probability: Basic terminology in probability: sample space, events, random experiment, trial, mutually exclusive events, equally likely events, independent events; Definitions of probability: Classical, statistical, axiomatic definitions; Basic principles of counting; Laws of probability: Additive and multiplicative; Conditional probability; Bayes' Theorem.

Random Variable and Expectation

Random Variables: Discrete and continuous random Variables; Probability distribution of random variables; Expected value of discrete & continuous random Variable.

Jointly Distributed Random Variables and Probability Distributions

Joint Probability Distribution of two random variables: Joint probability mass functions and density functions; Marginal probability mass and density functions; Mean, variance, covariance and correlation of random variables; Independent random variables; Illustrative numerical problems.

Discrete Probability Distributions

Bernoulli and binomial random variable and their distributions and moments; Computing binomial probabilities; Fitting of binomial distribution; Poisson random variable and its distribution and moments; Computing Poisson probabilities; Fitting of Poisson distribution.

Continuous Probability Distributions

Normal distribution and its moments; Standardization of normally distributed random variable; Measurement of areas under the normal curve; Negative exponential distribution and its moments; Concept of hazard rate function.

Chi-square, t and F Distribution

Characteristics function of normal random variable; Distribution of sum and mean of n independent normal random variables; Canonical definitions of chi-square, t and F random variables and their distributions; Joint distribution of and S2 in case of normal distribution.

Inferential Statistics

Simple random sampling method and random sample; Sampling distribution and standard error; Distinction between descriptive and inferential statistics; General concept of point and interval estimation; Criteria for good estimator; Maximum likelihood method of estimation; Estimation of mean and variance in normal distribution; Estimation of proportion in binomial distribution; Confidential interval of mean in normal distribution; Concept of hypothesis testing; Level of significance and power of a test; Tests concerning the mean of a normal distribution case – when variance is known (Z-test) and unknown (t-test)

Correlation and Linear Regression

Simple Correlation: Scatter diagram; Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient and its properties, Simple Linear Regression: Model and assumptions of simple linear regression; Least square estimators of regression coefficients;Tests of significance of regression coefficients; Coefficient of determination.